Climate change is the statistical distribution changes of weather patterns when that change lasts for a long period. This paper aims to review economic wide effect of climate change on transportation assets. Climate change economically affects transportation by increasing maintenance, operation, rehabilitation, and repairmen costs of transportation infrastructure. Climate changes can also increase the cost of new transportation infrastructure due to higher climate adaptable design standards. It also accelerates infrastructure replacement costs. In addition to damage to transportation infrastructures, climate change can also indirectly cause loss of infrastructure service and activity disruption. Climate change also causes bring down travel times, higher cost choice required to address operational needs and accumulating yield for shipment when transport courses allow.
NIH Funded Articles
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The link between disease and the oral cavity represent clinically important factors that have given rise to the interest in using saliva as a diagnostic fluid for systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to detect and quantify cancer related cytokines in the saliva of women with breast cancer and compare their concentrations to a healthy cohort.
Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance
Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
Inherited Thrombophilia Could be a Possible Rare Etiology to Result in Cirrhosis: A Case Report and Literature Review
We reported on a cirrhosis patient who was demonstrated on gene sequencing to have inherited thrombophilia. A 33-year-old male patient with 8-year recurrent abdominal distention, symptom aggravated with 4-month pitting edema of lower extremities bilaterally, was identified decompensated cirrhosis in local hospital.